Archive for Februari 10th, 2015

Dalam konteks bisnis, yang lebih menyedihkan dari 27 hal tersebut, dan banyak terjadi, adalah bila bisnis dibangun hanya untuk melancarkan niatan awal menjalankan Bad Things, dengan maksud untung besar secara cepat tanpa etika bisnis semestinya.


  1. Tunnel vision
    Single-minded focus on setting and achieving the goals can blind people to ethical concerns.
  2. The power of names
    The use of euphemisms for questionable practices can free them of their moral connotations, making them seem more acceptable.
  3. Social bond theory
    Employees can begin to feel more like numbers or cogs in a machine than individuals
  4. The Galatea effect
    Self image determines behavior. People who have a strong sense of themselves as individuals are less likely to do unethical things. Alternatively, employees who see themselves as determined by their environment are more likely to bend the rules,as they feel less individually responsible.
  5. Time pressure
    When encouraged to go as fast as possible, 90 percent ignored the man.
  6. Acceptance of small theft
    Small thefts are ignored
  7. Self-serving bias
    Most think they’re smarter and more ethical than those around them
  8. Conspicuous consumption
    The mere presence of money makes people more selfish
  9. The Pygmalion effect
    The way that people are seen and treated influences the way they act.
  10. Environmental influence
    Employees reflect their environment
  11. Reactance theory
    People resent threats to their freedom, and they often manifest that resistance by flouting certain rules.
  12. Obedience to authority
    when people see themselves as an instrument of another’s wishes, they feel less responsible
  13. The blinding effect of power
    The blinding effect of power
  14. Broken window theory
    When people see disorder or disorganization, they assume there is no real authority. In that environment, their threshold to overstepping legal and moral boundaries is lower.
  15. The free-rider problem
    If total damage is limited, people feel as though they can take more liberties.
  16. The foot in the door
    When a figure in authority asks someone to skirt the rules, they want to seem like a team player. In that frame of mind, they may be willing to do increasingly unethical things.
  17. Winner take-all competition
    In situations where there is a clearly-defined winner and loser, people are more likely to cheat. They desperately want to avoid the financial and reputational costs of losing.
  18. Cognitive dissonance and rationalization
    The bigger the dissonance, the larger the rationalization, and the longer it lasts, the less immoral it seems.
  19. Problematic punishments
    Rather than being about whether something is right or wrong, it becomes an economic calculation about the likelihood of getting caught versus the potential fine.
  20. Lack of sleep and hypoglycemia
    People who are hungry or tired have less self control
  21. Escalating commitment
    The feeling that there’s no way out.
  22. The induction mechanism
    As the unethical becomes routine, the extremely unethical, once unthinkable, enters the realm of possibility.
  23. Market and shareholder pressure
    “As long as the music is playing, you’ve got to get up and dance.”
  24. The compensation effect
    Sometimes people, having been moral and forthright in their dealings for a long time, feel as if they have banked up some kind of “ethical credit,” which they may use to justify immoral behavior in the future.
  25. Negative consequences of transparency
    Experiments examining the publication of conflicts of interest have found a perverse effect.
  26. Bad communication
    Rather than sounding out ideas that border on unethical, people push and test their limits.
  27. The pressure to conform
    In order to fit in with a group, people do things they might not otherwise.

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